Senin, 24 Juni 2013
Entrepreneurs have a very important role in the business world. According to Raymond WYKAO
Entrepreneurial mentioned as someone who is able to create and design ideas into reality. It takes
a skill that anyone can become a successful entrepreneur so as to compete in the market grobal.
An entrepreneur takes a stance that can support successful entrepreneurial practices include:
Innovation objectives, Management - Entrepreneurship and Strategy entrepreneurial. According to observers entrepreneurial activity
(Entrepreneurial activity) diIndonesia still very low. Entrepreneurial activity is translated as an
active individual in starting a new business and expressed in percent of the total active population.
The shorter Entrepreneurial activity, the lower the level of a country's Entrepreneurial activity and
its impact is increasing unemployment.
Based on the above conditions can be said that the problem of unemployment is a serious problem
for the country. Some have questioned the current college graduates are seen preparing graduates
as job seekers from the creators of jobs, this is due to college graduates today are more focused on
the accuracy and speed of obtaining employment pass and marginalize readiness to create jobs.
According Ciputra said: that "students from different disciplines are taught not only how to work well
but also encouraged to become owners of businesses fit their background, education should be run more
creative". Education should equip students with the attitude of being self
oriented and not just when a job seeker is concerned studynya finish. Based on the description above
can be taken as for thetitle of "Cultivation of Entrepreneurial Spirit Among Students".
1.2 Formulation Of The Problem
Based on the background of the above problem is obtained, namely problem formulation How to
Develop Entrepreneurship Attitude Amongst the Students?
1.3 Research Objectives
The purpose of writing this article is:
1. To know How to develop an entrepreneurial attitude among students
2. To know the steps taken to develop an entrepreneurial attitude among students
1.4 Benefits of Research
The benefits of writing this article include:
1. for Authors
Broaden knowledge especially in the field of Entrepreneurship
2. for the Community
As input information so that it can be implemented in the reality of life
2.1 Understanding Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship is a process of creativity and innovation that have a high risk to generate added value for
products that benefit the community and bring prosperity to entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship is the ability to
see and assess business opportunities and kemampuaan optimize resources and take actions and risks in
order to succeed in business. According to Kashmir (2006) Entrepreneurial spirit is a man who dared to
take the risk to open a business in a variety of occasions.
According to Raymond (1995) entrepreneurs are creative and innovative and be able to happen to increase
the well being of society and the environment.
According to Israel Kirzner (1979) Entrepreneurs recognize and act on market opportunities.
Entrepreneurship as the process of identifying, developing, and bringing the vision to life.
The vision may be an innovative idea, an opportunity, a better way to run things.
According to Penrose (1963) Entrepreneurship Event covers identify opportunities - opportunities within the economic system. Capacity or ability of different managerial entrepreneurial capacity.
2.2 The Importance Of Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship or entrepreneurship inoriginally a concept developedin the tradition of sociology and
psychology. At the beginning of the century18th, Richard Cantillon, Irishborn scholarlarge in France,
stated that entrepreneurship is a function of risk bearing. One the next century, Joseph Schumpeter
introduced innovation functions as a great power in entrepreneurship. Since then, the concept of
entrepreneurship an accumulation of functions couragebear the risk and innovation (Siswoyo, 2009).
Entrepreneurship is a process of creativity and innovations that have a high risk forgenerate added value
for useful products for the people and bring prosperity for entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship is the ability to
see and assess business opportunities andability to optimize resources and take action and risks in order
to succeed business. Based on this definition of entrepreneurship it can be learned by every individual who
have the desire, and not only dominated talented individuals alone.
Entrepreneurship is the right choice for individuals who are challenged to create a work, not looking for
1. According to William Danko: "An entrepreneur (entreprenuer) have the opportunity for times more likely
to be a millionaire ".
2. According to FORBES Magazine: "75% of the 400 people America's richest living as enterprenuer ".
3. Facts prove that many entreprenuer Successful small businesses are started (Siswoyo, 2006).
Entrepreneurs are those who dareem body the ideas into reality. According to Joseph Schumpeter,
Entrepeneur is a person who perceivesan oppotunity and creates an organization to pursueit
(Bygrave, 1994:2). Entrepreneurship is the who See an opportunity, then createan organization to take advantage of opportunities. Based on such
understanding, personality an entrepreneur identified by some researchers (Siswoyo, 2006) as follows
1. Desire for a sense of responsibility that hasgreat responsibility on business new blazes.
2. Preference for moder-ate risk. Entrepreneur more risk into account. Entrepreneursee business opportunities based on knowledge,
background, and experience them.
3. Confidence in their ability to succeed. Entrepreneur often have a sense of confidence high. A study conducted by the National Federation of Inde-pendent Business(NFIB) suggests a third entrepreneur felt to have 100% chance of success.
4. Desire for immediate feedback. Entrepreneur want to know how people respond about how they are being run,and for that they liked to be received input from other.
5. High level of energy. entrepreneur impressed have more energy than with most people.
6. Future orientation. entrepreneur endowedgood ability to see aopportunities.
7. Skill at organizing. entrepreneur has ability to put the appropriate field and ability.
8. Value of achievement over money. in the running business, which became the main force entrepreneur is an achievement of success, and money is only a symbol forsignifies an achievement (PPM Management,2004).
Future business entrepreneur described will continue to brilliant. Several years ago there wereten dency
giants (in the case ofAmerica), to continue to stream line the company. This fact also spurred the growth
of entrepreneurs new, rich entrepreneur will experience business, and is still in the productive age.
Downsizing phenomenon was also caused changing view of Generation X (those who born between
the years 19651980) of the entrepreneur. They no longer see the entrepreneur ascareer path full of risks,
but they are more see it as a way to create business safe.
Noting the above conditions, debriefing and growing entrepreneurial spirit in students expected can motivate
students to perform entrepreneurial activity. Experience gained in college is expected to continue after
graduation, so comes the new entrepreneurs who has created the work, while absorbinglabor. According
Hendarwan: "Education andentrepreneurship training is a stepserious of the government to tackle
unemploymentthe growing number of educated ". Ciputra(in the Directorate of Higher Education Institutions, 2009) confirms"Entrepreneurship education can provide
good impact for the future of Indonesia, such as that occurred in Singapore. But the key, education must
be run with the creative ".
2.3 People View Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship is an important issue in the economy of a developing nation. Economic progress or setbacks
of a nation is determined by the existence and role of the entrepreneur group. According to Alma (2008),
the benefits of entrepreneurship in the community, among others:
1. Adding manpower capacity thus reducing unemployment
2. Be superior Personal exemplary, because being an entrepreneur is admirable, honest, brave, life is not harmful
3. Gives examples of how to work hard, but do not forget orders - religious orders, close to god
4. Trying to give help to others in the field of social, development, according to his ability
5. Trying to educate employees be independent, disciplined, honest, and persevering in the face of the work.
While contributing to the development of entrepreneurship nations, among others, as follows:
1. As employers to contribute to an efficient process producs, distribution, and consumption. Participate overcome employment, increase incomes
2. As fighters nation in economics, improve national security, reduce dependence on foreign nations
Many negative factors that shape people's negative attitudes, so that they are less interested in self-employment among other professions aggressiveness, exxspansif, competitive, selfish, dishonest, miserly, unstable
source of income, less respectable, low employment and so on. This view is shared by some have, so they
are not interested. They do not want their children to pursue this field, and tried to divert his attention to civil
Others view that entrepreneurial profession quite promising in the future. it is driven by competitive conditions
in the search tighter labor. Job openings begin feel cramped. Coupled with zero policy growth by the
government in the field of personnel.
The second group is looking at entrepreneurs is an innovator, as an individual who have the instinct to see
opportunities, have the spirit, the mind and the ability to conquer sluggish and lazy way of thinking. Many seen
among the more entrepreneurial professionas individuals who have a great chancein terms of benefit to others.
Lags in addressing the importance of this entrepreneurship, cause we are far behind from the state neighbors,
who seemed to have specialized in the business profession. They can developlargescale businesses ranging
from up stream to downstream industries, including business services, banking, tradelarge (wholesale), a large
retail trade (department stores, supermarkets), small retail (retail),exporters, importers, and other forms of
businessin various types of commodities.
Has been realized jointly by all parties how important role in addressing entrepreneurship unemployment
problem. To grow and develop the entrepreneurial spirit and activity-so that graduates PT is more to be creators of employment in job-seekers need a real business.
2.4 Develop Entrepreneurship Among Students
Entrepreneurship development program was inaugurated by President of the Republic of Indonesia in July
with the launch of pilot programs entrepreneurship development among students. Student creativity program
(PKM), CCN - Enterprises and Cooperative Education (Co-op), has produced many alumni who proved to be more competitive in the workforce. The results of the
work of student innovation through the potential PKM commercially actionable business into an embryobased
science, technology and art. The pilot program was piloted in several universities, among others, as follows:
1. In Structured Entrepreneurship Lecture
Entrepreneurship courses are generally only for faculty / department only. Not all majorshave the same perspective to allocate Credits in order to present this course. Need sought an agreement and commonality of view presented lectures on the need for entrepreneurship in all departments / study programs available. commitment andsupport of top leaders in the PT is needed formake this happen.
2. Field Work - Businnes
Students as potential entrepreneurs still need to be equipped with the ability, skills, management skills, adoption of technological innovation, skills to manage financial / capital and expertise marketing channeled through direct experience in the business world. CCN is applied to the business activities of SMEs will be very useful for students to become familiar with the practice of entrepreneurship directly.
3. Clinical Consultancy Business and Employment
Program that has been running through the assistance US-AID and HEDS in Indonesia Region West willcontinue to be developed to other universities. Business Consulting and Employment (KBPK) developed from Consultation Center for small and medium businesses is one an activity that can provide services College to alumni who are interested in becoming new entrepreneur, or small business that has been dabbling in the world of business. KBPK educate faculty gain practical experience in business world by providing consultation to small and medium entrepreneurs. KBKP also open access to resources of raw materials, markets,financial resources, information resources, as well as building networks to improve synergies between small and medium entrepreneurs. the program continue for reasons not entirely source relatively limited human resources.
4. Entrepreneurship Internship
Entrepreneurial internship program is a student activity to gain practical work experience in small and medium enterprises, including pull through problem identification, analysis and resolution of problems and management, marketing, and technology. Internships entrepreneurship is an activity where students actually - actually working as labor in small and medium enterprises. Attachment and internship also creates equivalence between universities and small and medium businesses.
5. Alternative work of Students
Products traded in entrepreneurship is at the heart beats trade itself. Each will compete in similar products in quality, including the quality of performance, reliability, and power as well as ease of operation. The competition is essentially the competition technology applied in attractive packaging and lower prices as a result of research and developing a student through alternative work activities the students who have studied science and technology are trained and encouraged to produce a commodity that society needed. Principles that need to be emphasized in this regard is that the skill must be combined with produce minimal understanding of the business has been owned student participants.
6. Element of Students
In college, the world of entrepreneurship is still underestimated by most students. A lot of potential and opportunities that should be exploited for the benefit of student learning and the entrepreneurial culture of the earthing system. Various attempts have been made by the government to instill the entrepreneurial spirit in students. Sufficient motivation, triggering courage students to start trying experience in the field of entrepreneurship. As more and more students started the business since his college career, it is possible that after graduation to continue their businesses. So they can create jobs and is expected to help reduce the number of unemployed.
7. Curriculum elements
The second element to the successful development of entrepreneurship is enacted curriculum in a college. The curriculum is designed in such a way as to be used as a reference in the administration of college students. In general, college entrepreneurship course held in Indonesia, although the intensity and the proportion may be different from each other.
The conclusion that can be drawn from the description - the description above is is as follows:
1. Unemployment is a very serious problem, and the practice of entrepreneurship as one solution
2. The higher one's education, the lower the independence and entrepreneurial spirit
3. As a graduate of a high pergruan better prepared for seeking employment, as the creator of the work
4. Future entrepreneurial companies will continue to brilliantly portrayed. Entrepreneur soul debriefing and
planting is expected to motivate the students to become entrepreneurs are resilient, tough and independent.
5. Entrepreneurship is an important issue in the economy of a developing nation. Economic progress or
setbacks of a nation is determined by the existence and role of the entrepreneur group.
6. Basically the government and the leadership of T plays an important role in developing the entrepreneurial
spirit, but operationally there are 3 important elements key to successful development of entrepreneurial spirit
in college as students, curriculum, and faculty adviser entrepreneurship.
7. Three dominant factor in the motivation of scholars to be an entrepreneur is a chance factor, factor liberty,
and life satisfaction factors
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